Know more

Our use of cookies

Cookies are a set of data stored on a user’s device when the user browses a web site. The data is in a file containing an ID number, the name of the server which deposited it and, in some cases, an expiry date. We use cookies to record information about your visit, language of preference, and other parameters on the site in order to optimise your next visit and make the site even more useful to you.

To improve your experience, we use cookies to store certain browsing information and provide secure navigation, and to collect statistics with a view to improve the site’s features. For a complete list of the cookies we use, download “Ghostery”, a free plug-in for browsers which can detect, and, in some cases, block cookies.

Ghostery is available here for free: https://www.ghostery.com/fr/products/

You can also visit the CNIL web site for instructions on how to configure your browser to manage cookie storage on your device.

In the case of third-party advertising cookies, you can also visit the following site: http://www.youronlinechoices.com/fr/controler-ses-cookies/, offered by digital advertising professionals within the European Digital Advertising Alliance (EDAA). From the site, you can deny or accept the cookies used by advertising professionals who are members.

It is also possible to block certain third-party cookies directly via publishers:

Cookie type

Means of blocking

Analytical and performance cookies

Realytics
Google Analytics
Spoteffects
Optimizely

Targeted advertising cookies

DoubleClick
Mediarithmics

The following types of cookies may be used on our websites:

Mandatory cookies

Functional cookies

Social media and advertising cookies

These cookies are needed to ensure the proper functioning of the site and cannot be disabled. They help ensure a secure connection and the basic availability of our website.

These cookies allow us to analyse site use in order to measure and optimise performance. They allow us to store your sign-in information and display the different components of our website in a more coherent way.

These cookies are used by advertising agencies such as Google and by social media sites such as LinkedIn and Facebook. Among other things, they allow pages to be shared on social media, the posting of comments, and the publication (on our site or elsewhere) of ads that reflect your centres of interest.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses CAS and PHP session cookies and the New Relic cookie for monitoring purposes (IP, response times).

These cookies are deleted at the end of the browsing session (when you log off or close your browser window)

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) uses the XiTi cookie to measure traffic. Our service provider is AT Internet. This company stores data (IPs, date and time of access, length of the visit and pages viewed) for six months.

Our EZPublish content management system (CMS) does not use this type of cookie.

For more information about the cookies we use, contact INRA’s Data Protection Officer by email at cil-dpo@inra.fr or by post at:

INRA
24, chemin de Borde Rouge –Auzeville – CS52627
31326 Castanet Tolosan CEDEX - France

Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

Menu Logo Principal Agrocampus Ouest Angers University

Home Page

Durability of multigenic plant resistance - Modelling of pathogen adaptation

Sustainable use of total multigenic resistance requires an understanding of how its introduction into a plant population affects the adaptation speed of the pathogen.

To do this, we built a stochastic model to estimate the time of emergence of a pathogen mutant adapted to a multigenic resistance carried by a host population. Multigenic plant resistance is defined as a combination of major resistance genes that confer total immunity to disease. Total resistance can also be conferred to host individuals that only have a subset of these major genes (referred to as hosts with incomplete combinations).

Our results reveal the importance of the stochastic migration process to the adaptive dynamics of the pathogen. Firstly, we identify the growth and migration rates that allow pathogens to rapidly adapt to a multiresistance, even if only a small proportion of resistant hosts is introduced (figure). Secondly, the model highlights the negative impact of hosts that carry "incomplete" combinations on the durability of multiresistances. In fact, associating hosts that carry the multiresistance with susceptible hosts that carry one or several independently bypassed resistance genes can be more durable than associating them with hosts that carry "incomplete" combinations that include only a subset of the major genes. Third-ly, in contrast to the accepted view, our model suggests that multiresistance durability should not systematically be identified with mutation cost. Our theoretical study therefore allows us to gain insights into the principles of durable management of multigenic plant resistance for the purpose of hindering the adaptation of harmful populations.

multiresistance management strategies

A simplified decision diagram to assist with the development of multiresistance management strategies in order to achieve durable pathogen control. The decision diagram sums up the appearance time obtained with a variation of three model parameters: growth rate, r; migration rate, D; and the proportion of hosts carrying multigenic resistance, ξ. For any pair of pathogen parameters (r, D), the diagram illustrates the proportions of multiresistant hosts that could inhibit pathogen adaptation (in green).

Contact :

Natalia Sapoukhina,  IRHS unit
natalia.sapoukhina@angers.inra.fr

Référence :

  • Bourget R., Chaumont L., Sapoukhina N. (2013). Timing of pathogen adaptation to a multicomponent Treatment. PLoS ONE, 8(8): e71926.