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Dernière mise à jour : Mai 2018

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Genetic architecture of apple and pear resistance to diseases and pests

In apple, we seek to characterize the genetic architecture of scab resistance towards the diversity of Venturia inaequalis fungus in order to reason resistance gene and QTL pyramiding with a durable resistance prospect. We also seek to identify genes underlying two resistance QTLs (for scab and fire blight resistance, respectively) and a major gene for aphid tolerance, in view of a better understanding of involved mechanisms.

With this aim, we develop approaches of genetic mapping in segregating progenies and association genetics to precise the location of resistance genes and QTLs on apple chromosomes. Association genetics consists of several steps: (i) analysis of the genetic structure of available genetic resources  of old apple varieties (in collaboration with the QualiPom team), (ii) construction of an optimized reference core collection, (iii) high density genotyping and phenotyping of the varieties selected for the core-collection to detect statistical associations. Thanks to the available whole genome apple sequence, positional candidate genes underlying the QTLs are identified and characterized for allelic diversity and expression. Linked with functional genomic studies, we also seek to identify QTLs for expression of some defense genes (eQTLs) and for reaction to PRI.

In pear, we develop classical mapping studies of QTLs for resistance to scab, fire blight and psylla. Particularly, the progenies used were partially derived from wild pear species. Synteny studies are conducted between apple and pear to compare the genomic organization of resistance factors.

Tight collaborations are established with the EcoFun team to evaluate the impact of combinations of scab resistance factors on the diversity and pathogenicity of V. inaequalis populations, with the aim to propose long term strategies for optimized management of varietal resistances.

 

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